思想特点是怎么着玩意儿(2)

       
Messi不是政要,他只想踢得好一些,更好有的。所以,请观球的观众不要相信Messi可以成立奇迹,然而毫无疑问要相信Messi不怕困难,无畏逆境。
                                                                       
                             
 有一遍,一位来自一个小国家的新闻记者飞了20两个钟头到新德里来搜集自个儿,这天小编感情不佳,通过消息官拒绝了他,他不愿,通过新闻官告诉本身,他们经费有限,不可以等,小编仍旧走了。第二天去营地,此人就睡在门口,他挡住了自己的车,向自身大喊,“Messi,作者是穷国的记者,我从不时间,没钱,作者要走了。小编只想对您说一句话,你不用学怎么踢球了,你只须求上学如何做人呢!”说完扭头就走了,这厮后来征集了自个儿,大家成了恋人。作者很多谢她,因为是她唤醒了自家,人们一度起来不仅仅关心Messi怎么样进球,也敬服Messi做一个如何的人。
                                                                       
                                                

思想特点是何许东西(2)

“So everyone has and uses mental representations. What sets expert
performers apart from everyone else is the quality and quantity of
their mental representations. Through years of practice, they develop
highly complex and sophisticated representations of the various
situations they are likely to encounter in their fields—such as the
vast number of arrangements of chess pieces that can appear during
games. These representations allow them to make faster, more accurate
decisions and respond more quickly and effectively in a given
situation. This, more than anything else, explains the difference in
performance between novices and experts.”

专家分别于老百姓就在于其mental representations数量多,品质好。

“Consider how professional baseball players are able to consistently
hit balls that are pitched toward them at speeds that may exceed
ninety miles per hour—something that’s impossible for anyone who
hasn’t spent years training in that particular skill. These hitters
have just a split second to decide whether to swing and, if so, where
to swing. They have no better eyesight than an average person, and
their reflexes are no faster. What they have is a set of mental
representations developed through years of hitting pitches and getting
immediate feedback about their expectations concerning a pitch. These
representations enable them to quickly recognize what sort of pitch is
coming and where it will likely be when it reaches them. As soon as
they see the pitcher’s arm come around and the ball leave his hand,
they have a very good idea—without having to do any sort of conscious
calculations—whether it will be a fastball, slider, or curve and
approximately where it’s heading. In essence, they’ve learned to read
the pitcher’s delivery, so they have less need to “actually see how
the ball travels before determining whether and where to swing the
bat. The rest of us, who are illiterate where pitching is concerned,
simply can’t make these decisions before the ball arrives in the
catcher’s mitt.”

以篮球运动员举例说明。

“So here is a major part of the answer to the question we asked at the
end of the last chapter: What exactly is being changed in the brain
with deliberate practice? The main thing that sets experts apart from
the rest of us is that their years of practice have changed the neural
circuitry in their brains to produce highly specialized mental
representations, which in turn make possible the incredible memory,
pattern recognition, problem solving, and other sorts of advanced
abilities needed to excel in their particular specialties.”

mental representations改变了神经回路。

In pretty much every area, a hallmark of expert performance is the
ability to see patterns in a collection of things that would seem
random or confusing to people with less well developed mental
representations. In other words, experts see the forest when everyone
else sees only trees.

专门家能火速的发现新闻中的情势。

“This is perhaps most obvious in team sports. Take soccer, for
instance. You have eleven players on a side moving around in a way
that to the uninitiated seems a swirling chaos with no discernible
pattern beyond the obvious fact that some players are drawn to the
soccer ball whenever it comes near. To those who know and love the
game, however, and particularly to those who play the game well, this
chaos is no chaos at all. It is all a beautifully nuanced and
constantly shifting pattern created as the players move in response to
the ball and the movements of the other players. The best players
recognize and respond to the patterns almost instantaneously, taking
advantage of weaknesses or openings as soon as they appear.”

以足球为例,专家看的津津有味,不领悟人吗也看不知晓。

“To study this phenomenon, I and two colleagues, Paul Ward and Mark
Williams, investigated how well soccer players can predict what’s
coming next from what has already happened on the field. To do this we
showed them videos of real soccer matches and suddenly stopped the
video when a player had just received the ball. Then we asked our
subjects to predict what would happen next. Would the player with the
ball keep it, attempt a shot at the goal, or pass the ball to a
teammate? We found that the more accomplished players were much better
at deciding what the player with the ball should do. We also tested
the players’ memory for where the relevant players were located and in
what directions they were moving by asking them to recall as much as
they could from the last frame of the video before it was hidden from
them. Again, the better players outperformed the weaker ones.
We concluded that the advantage better players had in predicting
future events was related to their ability to envision more possible
outcomes and quickly sift through them and come up with the most
promising action. “In short, the better players had a more highly
developed ability to interpret the pattern of action on the field.
This ability allowed them to perceive which players’ movements and
interactions mattered most, which allowed them to make better
decisions about where to go on the field, when to pass the ball and to
whom, and so on.”

“To see why, consider what happens when you test a group of subjects
by having them read a newspaper article on something a bit
specialized—say, a football or baseball game—and then quiz them to see
how much of it they remember. You might guess that the results would
depend mainly on the subjects’ general verbal ability (which is
closely related to IQ), but you’d be wrong. Studies have shown that
the key factor determining a person’s comprehension of a story about a
football or baseball game is how much that person already understands
about the sport.”

精通关于足球的通信和灵性无关,和你此前有多明白足球有关。

“The reason is straightforward: If you don’t know much about the
sport, then all of the details you read are essentially a bunch of
unrelated facts, and remembering them is not much easier than
remembering a list of random words. But if you understand the sport,
you’ve already established a mental structure for making sense of it,
organized the information, and combined it with all the other relevant
information you’ve already assimilated. The new information becomes
part of an ongoing story, and as such it moves quickly and easily into
your long-term memory, allowing you to remember far more of the
information in an article than you could if you were unfamiliar with
the game it describes.

解释一下为何

“The more you study a subject, the more detailed your mental
representations of it become, and the better you get at assimilating
new information. Thus a chess expert can look at a series of moves in
chess notation that are gibberish to most people—1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6

  1. Bb5 a6 . . .—and follow and understand an entire game. Similarly,
    an expert musician can look at a musical score for a new composition
    and know what it will sound like before ever playing it. And if you
    are a reader who is already familiar with the concept of deliberate
    practice or with the broader area of the psychology of learning, you
    will likely find it easier than other readers to assimilate the
    information in this book. Either way, reading this book and thinking
    about the topics I’m discussing will help you create new mental
    representations, which will in turn make it easier for you to read and
    learn more about this subject in the future.”

探究一个课题更多,关于这些课题的mental
representations就越多,今后领会那些东西就越容易。

“In general, mental representations aren’t just the result of learning
a skill; they can also help us learn. Some of the best evidence for
this comes from the field of musical performance. Several researchers
have examined what differentiates the best musicians from lesser ones,
and one of the major differences lies in the quality of the mental
representations the best ones create. When practicing a new piece,
beginning and intermediate musicians generally lack a good, clear idea
of how the music should sound, while advanced musicians have a very
detailed mental representation of the music they use to guide their
practice and, ultimately, their performance of a piece. In particular,
they use their mental representations to provide their own feedback so
that they know how close they are to getting the piece right and what
they need to do differently to improve. The beginners and intermediate
students may have crude representations of the music that allow them
to tell, for instance, when they hit a wrong note, but they “must rely
on feedback from their teachers to identify the more subtle mistakes
and weaknesses.”

mental
representations可以反过来促进你的读书。而并非只是上学的结果。mental
representations多了的话,能够辅助您发现错误。

“In any area, not just musical performance, the relationship between
skill and mental representations is a virtuous circle: the more
skilled you become, the better your mental representations are, and
the better your mental representations are, the more effectively you
can practice to hone your skill.”

熟能生巧

参考
剪辑来自: Anders 埃里克sson. “Peak: Secrets from the New Science of
Expertise”。 iBooks.

永不倒下!Messi最新励志广告大片:Don’t Go Down

图片 1

患侏儒症却没钱治病

于今的Messi是一个手捧金球的高个子,但有何人能想到,10年前的她险些因为侏儒症截止本身的足球生涯。和家乡罗Surrey奥的此外孩子一样,Messi从小就热衷足球;但也和家里的妻儿一样,梅西天生矮小瘦弱……固然一直是纽维尔老伙计队少年队中最棒的球员,但到12岁时,Messi还只有3500px,依据医务人员的反省,他患有后天侏儒症,在11岁时一度截止生长。

Messi的侏儒症并非不可医治,然而注射生长激素每月开销高达900美金,母队纽维尔老伙计不乐意为一个前途未卜的子女支付那笔成本,一度觊觎Messi的河道得知他的顽疾后也免除了挖角的心境。

“小编记得,而且永远都不会遗忘得到诊断结果的那一天。当时天特别冷,大家在街上,Messi没有别的表情,非同小可的冷清,作者清楚她比任哪个人都晓得,家里没有其余力量让他治病。”三叔豪尔赫回想说,“作为岳丈,小编最明亮Messi的病源于营养不良。阿根廷生产世界上最好的牛肉,拥有世界上最好的奶酪,但那不属于大家。Messi是吃着土豆和胡萝卜长大的,是喝着那一个没有油沫的汤后去踢球的。他从不抱怨,年纪轻轻就比哪个人都懂事,这点没有人比小编更清楚。”

2000年7月,凭着精湛的球技,年仅13岁,身高只有140cm的他加入了巴赛罗那青年队。首场竞技,他就依靠熟悉的脚法,过人的盘带突破能力,折服了看台上的各类多种听众。看台上,掌声雷动,尖叫四起!岳父更是打动得热泪横流。可是惊喜之后,岳丈心中便是无限的荒凉与干净。140公分的身高,注定了外孙子与足球无缘。他的脚法越是完美,越是带给二叔深深的不满与疼痛!

图片 2

世世代代感恩巴萨的济困扶危

关键时刻,Messi遭逢了友好生命中的妃子图尔尼尼,一个长寿为巴萨在南美寻找小球员的球探。“小编花了成百上千时光说服巴萨俱乐部,作者也向Messi的血肉答应不会改变他的国籍。”回想过去,图尔尼尼那位名不见经传的球探颇为得意,“那是本人人生最得意的一场赌博。”在图尔尼尼的扶助下,Messi举家迁至布宜诺斯艾利斯,当时的巴萨体育经理雷克萨奇在看了Messi的教练和交锋后决然与其签约,并配置俱乐部为其诊疗,这一刻开头,梅西的有名家士之路才终于打开。

就那样,他一边练习,一边收受治疗。二零零三年,他的身高终于达成170公分。纵然在足球运动员当中,那样的身高如故偏矮,可是对他来说已经足足了!

自恃坚强的恒心与执著的奋力,他,终于改变了上下一心的背运命局,也已毕了世界足坛的一个轶事!

二零零六年,出征世界杯,成为当下最年轻的FIFA World Cup球员;2008-2009赛季,携带球队连夺西班牙足球甲级联赛、始祖杯和欧冠四个季军,成就了西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain)球队史无前例的三冠王;二〇〇九年,得到“世界足球先生”称号…直到二零一三年拿到职业生涯第四座金球奖奖杯,他终于成了绿茵场上一颗璨灿无比的大腕,成了名副其实的球王。他的名字叫里奥Messi!

每当满世界大宗观球的观众为Messi这位足球名宿尖叫呐喊时,很少有人了然他有那么一段悲凉的年轻往事。假若Messi当年对足球有一丝一毫的动摇,那么将来,他只是是个卓殊的侏儒,在某个城市某个不盛名的灰暗角落,依靠人们的尊崇,艰苦地谋生…

许多时候,面对困难,大家唯一的挑三拣四就是迎上去,克制它。有时,仅仅后退一小步,大家就成了再也从不机会翻身的“侏儒”,而咬着牙忍着泪一步一步顶上去,终有一天,我们会迎来生命的阳光,成为名副其实的“球王”

图片 3

可望你们喜欢     Messi